It is very important to follow a diet for pancreatitis, especially for chronic pancreatitis. You should eat as much protein as possible, and at the same time you should reduce or completely eliminate fats and carbohydrates, especially sugar, which is 99% carbohydrates, excluding fried foods and any foods that contain crude fiber. It is advisable to start taking vitamins. You should eat little by little, but often, or 5-6 times a day.
The pancreas is necessary to ensure the normal functioning of the body: thanks to the digestive juice secreted into the lumen of the duodenum, the main components of food products - proteins, fats and carbohydrates - are broken down. As a result of the digestive process that takes place in this part of the digestive tract, simpler compounds are obtained that enter the general bloodstream after absorption by the intestinal mucosa. Thus, nutrients, amino acids and vitamins necessary for metabolic processes in cells and for tissue building arise from food in the duodenal area and reach all organs and systems in the body.
In addition, the pancreas produces insulin, necessary for the normal flow of carbohydrate metabolism, and lipokin, which prevents fatty degeneration of the liver.
The most common cause of pancreatitis is the abuse of fatty foods and alcoholic beverages. The disease can occur in both acute and chronic forms. The diet for pancreatitis depends on the characteristics of the course of the pathological process: the acute period requires a stricter attitude towards diet and food products.
In acute or chronic inflammation of the pancreas, cardinal digestive disorders occur, including:
- The pH of the medium of the small intestine changes to the acidic side, as a result of which the patient feels heartburn, a burning sensation in the intestines;
- enzymes accumulate inside the gland, begin the process of self-digestion of tissue, causing severe abdominal pain in the navel, on the right side;
- toxic substances accumulate, self-poisoning of the body occurs;
- Violation of insulin secretion causes diabetes.
The pathogenesis of pancreatitis develops as acute or chronic inflammation. The principle of treatment of all forms of pancreatitis includes, according to the indications:
- surgical intervention;
- drug replacement therapy, taking into account the nature of the inflammation and the patient's condition;
- therapeutic diet food.
Proper nutrition in the stages of pancreatitis rehabilitation, especially after discharge of the patient from the hospital, significantly increases the chances of complete recovery or stabilization of the pathology.
At home, the principle of a nutritious diet is often violated. Meanwhile, it is important to follow the immutable rules of therapeutic diet. Moreover, the diet does not contain expensive products, their preparation is the simplest, including: chopping, boiling, steaming.
Diet for acute pancreatitis
During the worsening of a pancreatitis attack, before the ambulance arrives, it is allowed to put cold compresses on the area of pain, usually with a pillow. During this period, it is allowed to drink mineral water (for example, Borjomi, Narzan). The daily amount of fluid is up to five to six glasses, with normal urination. Simple fluids suppress the release of pancreatic juice into the lumen of the duodenum, reduce pain and remove toxins from the body.
When a sick person is admitted to a health facility, the patient will be given a dietary meal developed by the dietitian.
To illustrate the principles of nutrition in pancreatitis, we have made excerpts from these documents. Numbered diets are not officially used in hospitals. In pancreatitis, a diet with the abbreviation - SD and IAP is recommended.
In acute pancreatitis, the patient is prescribed starvation for the first two days. It is allowed to drink only rosehip soup or mineral water - one glass up to five times a day. On the third day it is allowed to eat, but only low-calorie foods, excluding fats, salt and foods that increase the secretion of gastric juice and stimulate the process of gas formation in the intestines.
For all the following days, while the patient is in the hospital, he must strictly adhere to the diet prescribed by the doctor!
Attenuation phase of pancreatitis exacerbation
Recommended diet taking into account mechanical and biochemical sparing of intestinal mucosa.
This meal includes:
- physiological level of the main components of food - proteins, lipids, carbohydrates;
- increased amount of fat and water soluble vitamins;
- low content of substances that irritate the intestinal mucosa, including spices for food;
- it is forbidden to use spicy, salty, spicy, smoked.
Cooking methods: steam heat treatment. Food is chopped, wiped, small pieces of prepared food are allowed. The temperature of the food served on the table should not exceed 650C. The recommended number of meals is five to six a day.
- The daily portion contains 90 grams of total protein, 40 grams of animal origin.
- Contains 80 grams of fat per day, 30 grams of vegetables.
- The carbohydrate content in the daily portion is 300 grams, easily digestible 60 grams.
- Energy value 2480 kilocalories.
Once the symptoms of acute pancreatitis subside, it is better to switch to soups, eat lean meats and fish, fresh cottage cheese, cereals and vegetables and puddings. Foods such as fruit juices, honey, jams, sugars should be reduced or eliminated from the diet. Before going to bed, laxative drinks are useful: kefir, yogurt, etc. It is important to completely abandon fatty foods, muffins, fried fish, bacon, sour cream, salty and smoked foods, pickles, onions, garlic, radishes, alcoholic beverages.
The recommended diet for acute pancreatitis should be followed for six months to a year. Nearly one hundred percent of a patient’s health depends on how strictly they adhere to medical regulations regarding diet. It is important to remember that any dietary errors are immediately reflected in the condition of the pancreas.
Chronic pancreatitis in remission
In this variant, a different approach to the patient's diet. During this period, nutritionists recommend a high protein content in the diet, the physiological rate of fat. A more sophisticated approach to carbohydrates. Diet in remission suggests:
- protein is allowed slightly above the physiological norm;
- norm for fats and complex carbohydrates in the form of cereals;
- below the norm include sugar, honey, jam, cookies, sweet pastries, table salt is also below the norm.
According to this option, it is forbidden to eat substances that irritate the mucous membrane of the gastrointestinal tract. Such products include vinegar, alcohol and other substances used as spices.
Dishes are cooked, stewed, baked, steamed. It is allowed to serve food in puree, not in puree form. Feeding at short intervals, in small meals 4-6 times a day. Food is served hot. Its temperature is not higher than sixty degrees Celsius.
- The daily serving contains 120 grams of total protein, including 50 grams of animal origin.
- The daily portion contains 90 grams of fat, 30 grams of vegetable fat.
- The content of a daily portion of carbohydrates is 350 grams, easily digestible 40 grams.
- Energy value 2690 kilocalories.
Diet for chronic pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis in most cases develops against the background of an acute illness. At the same time, it may be primary if the patient suffers from liver cirrhosis, hepatitis, duodenal pathology, cholelithiasis, allergies, atherosclerosis, and if he abuses alcohol.
Diet for chronic pancreatitis is considered the main in the treatment of this disease. In remission, the number of calories in the daily diet should correspond to physical activity. It is recommended to take food up to six times a day, not forgetting the food characterized by a laxative effect.
It is important to monitor your daily protein intake. Since this is necessary for the normal course of the recovery process, it must be consumed in sufficient quantities - up to 130 grams per day, and only 30% of protein should be of plant origin.
The diet of a patient suffering from chronic pancreatitis should include beef, veal, rabbit, chicken, turkey and lean pork. Prohibited: lamb, fatty pork, as well as goose, duck and game. If the patient is worried about frequent pain, meat dishes are cooked in chopped form or steamed, dishes can not be baked in the oven, fried and stewed. Lean fish is cooked in the same way.
Low fat meat and fish dishes help the patient to avoid fatty liver degeneration, which is of great importance in chronic pancreatitis. Homemade cottage cheese has a similar property, but only if it is not sour and fresh, storing cottage cheese is not recommended.
Pure milk is often poorly tolerated in chronic pancreatitis, so it is better to add it to cereals, soups, jellies when preparing them. Even if patients tolerate milk well, it should not be abused by drinking no more than half a glass of warm milk a day in small sips. Fresh dairy products are much healthier for people suffering from pancreatitis. Cheese in remission, forbidden during the exacerbation of the disease, can be eaten in small quantities, provided you feel well. The cheese should be lean and mild. Whole eggs are excluded from the diet, while omelet proteins are steamed, meals with whipped proteins are allowed, in addition, eggs may be present as an addition to other dishes.
Proteins of vegetable origin can be rice, yesterday's bread, bread crumbs, semolina, oatmeal, buckwheat, pasta. It is forbidden to eat legumes with pancreatitis.
Dietary fats should not exceed 70 grams, and 80% are animal fats, it is better to eat them along with other foods and food products. It is better to put the oil in a ready-made dish just before eating, vegetable oil is allowed only if it is well tolerated. Cooking fats, margarine, beef and lard are prohibited.
Carbohydrates in the daily diet should not contain more than 350 grams, they can be sugar, honey, jam, syrup. From foods rich in carbohydrates are allowed crackers, semolina, oatmeal, buckwheat, barley, rice, pasta. Also, patients are allowed to eat potatoes, carrots, beets, pumpkins, zucchini, squash. Vegetable dishes should be steamed or in water, and you can eat steamed vegetable pudding. Cooked vegetables are best eaten in pureed form with the addition of cereal soup.
Non-acidic varieties of apples are recommended: ripe fruit can be baked, wiped, made into compote, and dried fruit compote is also useful.Of all the sauces, milk and flour-based béchamel is considered the most optimal, and the flour is not simmered and very little salt is added.
- First courses (soups of cereals, vegetables, milk, lean meats, fish, as well as sweet fruit soups).
- Other dishes (boiled beef, poultry, fish, chicken egg omelette).
- Products containing cereals (cereals, pasta, white, black bread, vegetable oil).
- Dairy, fermented dairy products (milk 2, 5%, fermented dairy products, butter).
- Berries, fruits, vegetables (ripe, sweet) in raw, baked form, carrots, beets - cooked, as a dressing for soups, as side dishes and stand-alone dishes.
- Dessert (easily digestible carbohydrates for pancreatitis are limited, ie below the physiological norm, jam, honey, sugar).
- Drinks (milk tea, vegetables, fruit juices).
- Specialized products (dry mixture of protein composites) Fat- and water-soluble vitamins are added.
It is also important not to overeat, reducing the daily amount of food to 2. 5 kilograms, taking into account the liquid you drink. Food is taken often and in small meals.
Following all the nutritional guidelines for pancreatitis can significantly increase the effectiveness of therapy in general.
Diet menu for pancreatitis
The product number must be calculated on the basis of the above regulatory documents.
Here is an example of a daily diet menu for pancreatitis:
First meal (7: 00 - 7: 30): boiled beef, oatmeal with milk, tea.
Second meal (9: 00-9: 30) omelette, baked apple, decoction of pomegranate.
Third meal (12: 00-13: 00): vegetable soup, beef souffle, pasta, sweet berry jelly, compote.
Meal 4 (16: 00-16: 30): cottage cheese and tea.
Meal 5 (20: 00-20: 30): fish souffle, tea.
What to turn off?
As you can see, in the diet for pancreatitis, all dishes are made from lean meat and fish - and only in the cooked version. Fried food is forbidden. You can eat dairy products with a minimal percentage of fat. It is recommended to drink only natural juices and compotes and liquid tea.
It should be completely deleted:
- All kinds of alcohol, sweet (grape juice) and carbonated drinks, cocoa, coffee Animal products: offal, including first category, pork and fat, fatty fish, all smoked products, spicy, fried, instant products based on extractives.
- Herbal products: legumes, mushrooms, spinach, sorrel, onions, bakery products based on butter dough.
- Desserts: chocolate, greasy creams.
- Figs, grapes, bananas, dates.
- Confectionery, chocolate, ice cream, jam.
- Lard, cooking oils.
- Hard-boiled eggs, whole egg dishes, fried eggs
Frequently Asked Questions
- Is cinnamon allowed? Cinnamon is a spice that can be bought in a specialized store or delivered from a distributor. What is presented in packaged form in hypermarkets is a cheap option called cassia. This "analogue" is associated with myths about its healing effect in type 2 diabetes. This is not related to the work of the gland, but to the response of insulin receptors in tissues. There is no official confirmation for that. As for real cinnamon, it increases the production of digestive juice, which is undesirable in case of worsening of the disease.
- Are offal allowed? Heart, stomach and liver are not a contraindication for pancreatitis if properly prepared. Such food can be eaten boiled or stewed. It is not recommended to eat them fried.
- Are processed cheese, bread, chocolate, coffee allowed? Processed cheese should be as simple as possible, ie. Without any spices or additives. Bread can be included in the menu. Chocolate is allowed in small quantities. Coffee is not recommended at any stage of the disease. Alternatively, you can drink coffee with milk and in small amounts.
- Is rice and olive oil allowed? Rice is allowed. You can add olive oil to salads and other dishes.
- Is brine allowed? In the remission phase, a small amount of brine will not hurt, but you should not drink it.
- Is salted lard allowed? Fat is heavy on the liver and gallbladder. When used, the pancreas suffers a second time. Outside the fat deterioration phase they are allowed, but in small amounts (up to two slices a day, up to twice a week).