Every third person suffers from pancreatitis, but not everyone needs a diet for pancreatitis.
Before talking about diet, it is important to understand what pancreatitis is, why it occurs and how it manifests.
What is pancreatitis?
Before starting to study this disease, it is necessary to learn more about the organ in which the lesion occurs. The pancreas is a hormonal organ of mixed function (exocrine + endocrine).
Endocrine function is expressed in the production of its own hormones (glucagon and insulin), whose activity is aimed at regulating blood glucose levels.
Exocrine function consists in the production of pancreatic secretions (pancreatic juice), which improve digestion. The organ itself is located behind the stomach in the left hypochondrium.
Pancreatitis is an inflammatory process in the pancreas associated with further damage to its structure.
Causes of pancreatitis:
- Alcohol abuse.
- Inaccurate diet, wrong diet.
- Diseases associated with damage to the biliary system of the liver (includes the gallbladder with bile ducts that expand from it). Such diseases include: cholelithiasis, cholangitis, tumors of the large duodenal papilla, tumors of the liver).
- Taking certain drugs that have a toxic effect on the pancreas (antibacterial drugs, anti-cancer drugs).
Symptoms of acute and chronic pancreatitis
There are chronic and acute pancreatitis. Each of these forms has some kind of clinical treatment and requires the choice of individual therapy.
Acute pancreatitis is characterized by:
- Sharp pain in the waist in the upper half of the body. Pain can be associated with food eaten and also occur on its own;
- Rise in body temperature to febrile figures (38, 1-39, 0 degrees Celsius);
- Vomiting of food eaten, sometimes bile (when the onset of the disease depends on damage to the biliary system of the liver);
- Nausea ending in vomiting;
- Diarrhea (liquid stool);
- Burping of eaten undigested food;
- High blood glucose numbers;
- Palpation (feeling) of the abdomen - the anterior abdominal wall is tense, painful in specialized places, typical for the study of pancreatitis and gallbladder disease.
Important!If these symptoms are found, you should see a doctor immediately for further instrumental examination!
The chronic form of pancreatitis is characterized by:
- Pain in the epigastric (stomach) area. Weight in the left hypochondrium (on the left). Acute low back pain occurs more often with exacerbation of the chronic form of pancreatitis and occurs 40-50 minutes after eating;
- Dyspeptic disorders (associated with damage to the digestive system). These include: vomiting, after eating, constipation followed by diarrhea (possible complaints of white spots in the feces - these are undigested fat particles and products of their decay;
- Dizziness occurs due to irritation of the nervous system by neutralized glucose molecules;
- Flatulence (gas in the stomach);
- Noticeable weight loss.
Complications of pancreatitis
Complications of pancreatitis resulting from improper treatment or improper performance:
- Transition from acute to chronic;
- Inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis);
- If a secondary infection enters an inflamed organ, an abscess (limited purulent inflammation) and phlegmon (diffuse purulent inflammation) may occur;
- Diabetes mellitus - occurs when the smallest structures of the pancreas are affected (Langerhans islets);
- Peritonitis (transition of the inflammatory process from the pancreas to the abdominal cavity);
- Bleeding - occurs when the capsule of an organ breaks (extremely rare).
Five basic principles of pancreatitis treatment
To avoid complications, you should immediately consult a doctor and follow his recommendations flawlessly.
Therapy of acute pancreatitis involves the following principles:
- Detoxification therapy (rescuing the body from poisoning);
- Neutralization of excess free glucose in the body;
- Removal of inflammation from the pancreas;
- Complication prevention;
- Alleviation of disease symptoms.
When a patient with an acute form of pancreatitis is admitted to the hospital, first of all, all therapeutic measures are aimed at eliminating intoxication (poisoning) of the body.
- The patient should be given droppers with 5% glucose solution together with 0, 9% sodium chloride solution in a volume of 1000-1200 ml;
- A "hungry" diet is prescribed (only heavy drinking is allowed to rid the body of excess toxins and free glucose);
- Diuretics should be prescribed to reduce blood circulation and remove toxins from the body;
- Protease inhibitors that reduce increased exocrine activity of the pancreas.
After the intoxication syndrome is removed, further medical measures are taken to combat this disease. Diet is always recommended for any form of pancreatitis.
Interesting!In the form of acute pancreatitis and exacerbation of chronic pancreatitis, three main components are prescribed: cold, hunger and rest.
Cold - A bag of ice wrapped in non-synthetic fabric should be applied to the left hypochondrium and held for 40 minutes, then rested for 20 minutes. This procedure slows down the blood supply, which causes the development of inflammation.
Diet against pancreatitis
Diet is a normalized amount of food used for therapeutic purposes and is necessary to supplement the overall daily energy balance.
Diet in pancreatitis and its approximate content are different, both in acute and chronic form.
Hunger. The diet for pancreatitis should be partial. The first two days you should not eat completely (to relieve your own digestive system and reduce the inflammatory process in the pancreas).In this period, patients are recommended a decoction of chamomile, dried fruit compotes, jellies, peppermint, rose hips, alkaline mineral water, special solutions.
Starting from day 3, dietary therapy for pancreatitis is based on a gentle diet.
Important!It is forbidden to eat too hot, too cold food, spicy, seasoned, sour, smoked, sweet, fried food.
Eat food in small meals 7-8 times a day. All products should be heat-treated, grated in a blender or grated. It is recommended to consume up to 2-2, 5 liters of liquid, it can be freshly squeezed juices, decoctions of wild rose, chamomile, fruit drinks, jellies, compotes, alkaline drinks.
The diet for pancreatitis includes certain foods in strictly defined doses: wheat crackers no more than 50 g per day (rye crackers, premium bread, fresh bread are prohibited), lean meat (beef, chicken breast, turkey), fish, pike, pike, salmon), eggs (1 piece per day. Quail eggs are very rich in nutrients necessary to fill the daily meal).
Low-fat dairy products (milk, cottage cheese, sour cream, cream, fermented baked milk), the use of biokefir is strictly prohibited because they contain live bacteria that can cause increased fermentation in the intestines of patients with pancreatitis and fresh milk), vegetables can be consumedall (cooked on paria), cereals (rice, oatmeal, semolina, buckwheat, millet), fruit (only green apples are allowed - 1 apple a day, weighing no more than 300 g)
Tip!On average, the amount of calories received daily from food should not exceed 700 - 750 kcal. Such a diet for pancreatitis lasts 3 days. From the 5th day of exacerbation of pancreatitis, the diet should be with the amount of kilocalories consumed daily up to 1000.
To do this, you need to increase the amount of protein consumed to 10-15 g per day (products containing protein: cottage cheese, sour cream, eggs, chicken breast), simple carbohydrates up to 200 g (cereals, honey, sugar, potatoes)).
Example of a daily menu for a patient with acute pancreatitis, starting from day 5:
- Breakfast.Millet porridge (on water), wheat crackers 15 g, sweet tea.
- Lunch.Boiled beets 45 g, grated, chicken breast 50 g, lemon balm soup
- Lunch.Vegetable soup 150 g, wheat crackers 15 g, dried fruit compote
- Afternoon snack.Mashed potatoes 50 g, boiled fish 30 g, tea without sugar
- Dinner.Low-fat cottage cheese casserole 60 g, pomegranate soup
- Second dinner.Skimmed milk with honey.
This diet should be followed for approximately 7-10 days. Starting from the 10th day, the number of kilocalories increases to 2000-2500 kcal. Food should completely supplement the body's energy balance and should not have a negative impact on digestive processes.
Diet for chronic pancreatitis
A strict diet is recommended for chronic pancreatitis. Meals should be broken down, in small meals throughout the day.
Food should be eaten at certain times at strictly defined intervals between meals (for example, at 7: 00, 11: 00, 14: 00, 16: 00, 19: 30). Most often, with chronic pancreatitis, diet number 5 should be prescribed. This is a frugal diet prescribed for therapeutic purposes in diseases of the pancreas, gallbladder, bile ducts, liver.
The following foods are recommended to maintain energy balance and calorie intake for good physical function.
Approximate meal of food for therapeutic nutrition no. 5
Protein foods.This is a very energy rich food, when it breaks down, a lot of energy is released. Assign proteins of animal and plant origin. Products containing animal protein include: meat (lean beef pulp, lamb, pork, chicken breast pulp, turkey meat), fish (cod pulp, lean salmon, pike, red fish, seafood - shrimp, squid), dairy products(low-fat cottage cheese, sour cream, milk, cream, fermented baked milk, cheese, whey, yogurt.
Important!It is not recommended to eat foods containing live bifidobacteria to avoid decay and fermentation in the intestines). The amount of animal protein should not exceed 80 g per day.
Products containing vegetable proteins include: cereals (buckwheat, wheat, pearl barley, lentils, walnuts (walnuts, almonds, peanuts, sunflower seeds). The amount of vegetable protein should not exceed 100 g per day.
It is not recommended to eat legumes, because they cause fermentation in the body and so poorly digested food, which contributes to bloating, reproduction of pathogenic microflora in the intestinal lumen.
Foods that contain fat.Fats must be of animal origin.
Tip!The amount of food containing fat should not exceed 70 g per day. It is recommended to add this product only to ready-made products, just before meals (porridge, mashed potatoes).
Carbohydrate foods.Carbohydrates should be simple in structure and easily digestible. These products include: sugar, 1st grade wheat flour toast, wheat, semolina, potatoes, honey, apples, oranges, tangerines, pears, carrots, peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers, berries. The daily intake of easily digestible carbohydrates should not exceed 350 g.
In chronic pancreatitis, days of monthly fasting are recommended. Fasting days - are held 2-3 times a month and are characterized by complete refusal of food; use only alkaline drinks (mineral water), wild rose soup, chamomile, lemon balm. This method of treatment facilitates the work of the pancreas, improves peristalsis (the process of movement of food accumulation along the digestive tract) and reduces the acidity of gastric juice.
Recommended meals for patients with chronic diabetes:
- soupsvegetables with potatoes, carrots, beets, cabbage, fruits, lean meat broths (chicken, beef, turkey, fish) are recommended. Soups should not be rich, without the addition of vegetable oil and animal fats;
- vegetable porridge(from potatoes, beets, carrots, broccoli) - vegetables must be thoroughly cooked, without adding milk and butter;
- main dishes(cooked or steamed chicken breast, turkey, fish, beef) with a minimum amount of salt;
- wholemeal pasta is allowed,first grade wheat flour toast;
- cereals(buckwheat, barley, pearl barley, millet, oatmeal, oatmeal). Porridge should be cooked only in water, with a minimum amount of salt and sugar. It is strictly forbidden to add butter to porridge;
- decoctionsrosehip, chamomile, lemon balm, alkaline mineral water, dried fruit compotes, green tea, milk tea, fresh juices (apple, carrot, beetroot), skim milk;
- 1st grade wheat flour toast(it is not recommended to use fresh bread and toast of the highest grade flour, rye, corn flour)
Interesting!The total daily caloric intake for pancreatitis should be 2000-2670 kcal.
Foods that are strictly forbidden for consumption, both in acute and chronic forms of pancreatitis:
- Beverages containing alcohol;
- Coffee, strong teas;
- Fresh wheat and rye bread;
- Fatty meat soups (of fatty pulp of beef, pork, lamb);
- Animal fats (pork and lamb fat);
- Bananas, grapes, figs;
- Subcultures (offal of animals and birds - brain, liver, kidneys);
- Cereal and rice cereals;
- Fried and smoked fish, fried flour products;
- Fatty dairy products, fresh milk;
- Chocolate, sweets.
For any disease, you should definitely follow a diet, because it has a beneficial effect on the course of treatment and prevents the development of complications!